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Supplements for Cortisol: Natural Ways to Reduce Stress

Supplements for Cortisol: Natural Ways to Reduce Stress

Introduction

Cortisol, often referred to as the “stress hormone,” plays a crucial role in the body’s response to stress. When faced with a stressful situation, the adrenal glands release cortisol, triggering the “fight or flight” response. While this stress response is beneficial in the short term, chronic stress and elevated cortisol levels can lead to various health problems, including weight gain, cardiovascular disease, and mental health disorders.

Managing stress and maintaining healthy cortisol levels is essential for overall well-being. Lifestyle changes, such as regular exercise, adequate sleep, and mindfulness practices, can help reduce the body’s stress response. Additionally, a balanced diet rich in whole, minimally processed foods can support the body’s ability to cope with stress. However, certain supplements may also help support healthy cortisol levels and reduce stress.

This article will explore the role of supplements for cortisol management, discussing the potential benefits and risks of various herbs, vitamins, and minerals. We will also examine the importance of lifestyle changes and nutrition in managing stress and maintaining healthy cortisol levels. By taking a comprehensive approach to stress management, individuals can improve their overall health and reduce the risk of stress-related health problems.

Understanding Cortisol and Stress

Cortisol, a glucocorticoid hormone produced by the adrenal glands, plays a vital role in the body’s stress response. When an individual encounters a stressful situation, the hypothalamus in the brain signals the adrenal glands to release cortisol and other stress hormones, such as adrenaline and noradrenaline (McCabe et al., 2017). This triggers the “fight or flight” response, preparing the body to deal with the perceived threat by increasing heart rate, blood pressure, and blood sugar levels while suppressing non-essential functions like digestion and reproduction (Anghelescu et al., 2018).

In the short term, the stress response is adaptive and beneficial, providing a burst of energy and heightened focus. However, when stress becomes chronic, the body is exposed to elevated cortisol levels for prolonged periods, which can lead to various health problems (Edwards et al., 2012). Chronic stress and high cortisol levels have been linked to weight gain, insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease, digestive problems, anxiety, depression, and memory impairment (Shoemaker, 2022). Additionally, cortisol can suppress the immune system, making individuals more susceptible to illnesses and infections (Kiecolt-Glaser et al., 2021).

The Impact of Chronic Stress on Health

Chronic stress and elevated cortisol levels can have far-reaching effects on nearly every system in the body. One of the most well-known consequences of chronic stress is its impact on mental health. Prolonged exposure to high cortisol levels has been associated with an increased risk of developing anxiety disorders and depression (Benson et al., 2014). Moreover, chronic stress can impair cognitive function, affecting memory, attention, and decision-making abilities (Calabrese et al., 2008).

In addition to its effects on mental health, chronic stress can also take a toll on physical health. Elevated cortisol levels have been linked to abdominal obesity, as cortisol promotes the storage of fat in the abdominal region (Kiecolt-Glaser et al., 2021). This type of fat distribution is associated with an increased risk of metabolic disorders, such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (Madison et al., 2021). Furthermore, chronic stress can contribute to cardiovascular disease by increasing blood pressure, heart rate, and inflammation (Oravcova et al., 2022).

Stress also has a significant impact on the digestive system. Cortisol can alter gut motility, increase intestinal permeability, and disrupt the balance of gut bacteria (Lew et al., 2019). These changes can lead to digestive problems, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and peptic ulcers (Kiecolt-Glaser et al., 2021).

Measuring Cortisol Levels

Measuring cortisol levels can provide valuable insights into an individual’s stress response and overall health. Cortisol levels can be assessed through various methods, including saliva, blood, urine, and hair samples (McCabe et al., 2017). Salivary cortisol testing is a non-invasive and convenient method that has gained popularity in research and clinical settings (Anghelescu et al., 2018).

Cortisol levels typically follow a diurnal rhythm, with the highest levels occurring in the morning shortly after waking and gradually declining throughout the day (Edwards et al., 2012). Deviations from this normal pattern, such as consistently high cortisol levels or a flattened diurnal curve, may indicate chronic stress or underlying health problems (Shoemaker, 2022).

It is important to note that cortisol levels can be influenced by various factors, including age, gender, menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and certain medications (McCabe et al., 2017). Therefore, interpreting cortisol test results should be done in consultation with a healthcare professional who can consider an individual’s unique circumstances and medical history.

Lifestyle Changes to Reduce Cortisol

Managing stress and maintaining healthy cortisol levels often require a multi-faceted approach that includes lifestyle modifications. Incorporating regular exercise, getting enough quality sleep, practicing mindfulness and relaxation techniques, and maintaining a healthy work-life balance are all crucial components of a stress-reducing lifestyle (Lin, n.d.).

Exercise and Physical Activity

Exercise is a powerful tool for managing stress and lowering cortisol levels. Engaging in regular physical activity, such as brisk walking, jogging, cycling, or swimming, can help reduce the body’s stress response and promote the release of endorphins, the “feel-good” hormones that improve mood and reduce pain (NIDDK, n.d.). Aim for at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise or 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity exercise per week, as recommended by the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2018).

While moderate-intensity exercise has been shown to reduce cortisol levels, it is important to note that excessive or prolonged high-intensity exercise can actually increase cortisol levels (Pascoe et al., 2017). Therefore, it is crucial to find a balance and listen to your body, gradually increasing the intensity and duration of your workouts as your fitness level improves.

Mindfulness and Relaxation Techniques

Mindfulness practices, such as meditation, deep breathing exercises, yoga, and tai chi, have been shown to reduce stress and lower cortisol levels (Pascoe et al., 2017). These practices help individuals focus on the present moment, promote relaxation, and develop a greater sense of self-awareness. Incorporating mindfulness into daily life can be as simple as taking a few minutes each day to practice deep breathing or meditation.

Deep breathing exercises, such as diaphragmatic breathing or box breathing, can help activate the parasympathetic nervous system, which promotes relaxation and reduces stress (Lin, n.d.). To practice diaphragmatic breathing, sit or lie down in a comfortable position, place one hand on your chest and the other on your belly. Breathe in slowly through your nose, allowing your belly to rise while keeping your chest relatively still. Exhale slowly through pursed lips, feeling your belly fall. Repeat this process for several minutes, focusing on the sensation of your breath moving in and out of your body.

Yoga and tai chi are mind-body practices that combine physical movement, breathing techniques, and meditation. These practices have been shown to reduce cortisol levels, improve mood, and enhance overall well-being (Pascoe et al., 2017). Attending a yoga or tai chi class can provide guidance and support, but there are also many resources available online for those who prefer to practice at home.

Sleep and Stress Management

Adequate sleep is essential for managing stress and regulating cortisol levels. Chronic sleep deprivation has been linked to elevated cortisol levels, which can contribute to various health problems (Kiecolt-Glaser et al., 2021). Aim for 7-9 hours of quality sleep per night and establish a consistent sleep routine to promote better sleep hygiene.

To improve sleep quality, create a relaxing bedtime routine that helps you unwind and prepare for rest. This may include taking a warm bath, reading a book, or practicing relaxation techniques like deep breathing or progressive muscle relaxation. Avoid stimulating activities, such as watching television or using electronic devices, at least an hour before bedtime, as the blue light emitted by these devices can interfere with the production of melatonin, the hormone that regulates sleep (Lin, n.d.).

In addition to prioritising sleep, it is important to develop effective stress management strategies. This may include setting boundaries, learning to say no to non-essential commitments, and making time for activities that bring joy and relaxation (Lin, n.d.). Engaging in hobbies, spending time in nature, and nurturing supportive relationships can all help reduce stress and promote overall well-being.

Foods and Nutrition for Cortisol Reduction

Nutrition plays a significant role in managing stress and regulating cortisol levels. Adopting a balanced, nutrient-dense diet that emphasises whole, minimally processed foods can help support the body’s stress response and reduce inflammation (Kiecolt-Glaser et al., 2021).

The Mediterranean Diet

The Mediterranean diet, which is rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and healthy fats like olive oil and nuts, has been associated with lower cortisol levels and reduced inflammation (Kiecolt-Glaser et al., 2021). This eating pattern is also high in antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds, which can help protect the body from the damaging effects of chronic stress.

Key components of the Mediterranean diet include:

  1. Fruits and vegetables: Aim for a rainbow of colours to ensure you’re getting a wide range of vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants.
  2. Whole grains: Choose complex carbohydrates like quinoa, brown rice, and whole-grain bread to provide sustained energy and fiber.
  3. Lean proteins: Include sources like fish, poultry, legumes, and tofu to support muscle health and repair.
  4. Healthy fats: Incorporate sources like avocados, nuts, seeds, and olive oil to promote brain health and reduce inflammation.

Foods to Limit or Avoid

On the other hand, consuming a diet high in processed foods, added sugars, and unhealthy fats can contribute to elevated cortisol levels and increased inflammation (Kiecolt-Glaser et al., 2021). These foods can also disrupt blood sugar balance, leading to energy crashes and mood swings, which can exacerbate stress and anxiety.

To support healthy cortisol levels, it is important to limit or avoid foods that can contribute to stress and elevated cortisol levels, such as:

  1. Processed and high-sugar foods: These can cause rapid blood sugar spikes and crashes, leading to mood swings and increased stress.
  2. Excessive caffeine: While moderate caffeine intake may be beneficial, excessive consumption can increase anxiety and disrupt sleep, leading to higher cortisol levels.
  3. Alcohol: Excessive alcohol consumption can interfere with sleep quality and contribute to dehydration, which can exacerbate stress and anxiety.

Specific Nutrients for Stress Management

In addition to following a balanced, nutrient-dense diet, certain nutrients have been shown to play a role in stress management and cortisol regulation. These include:

  1. Vitamin C: This antioxidant vitamin has been shown to reduce cortisol levels and improve mood in individuals under stress (McCabe et al., 2017). Good sources of vitamin C include citrus fruits, berries, kiwi, bell peppers, and leafy greens.
  2. Magnesium: This mineral is involved in over 300 enzymatic reactions in the body, including those related to stress response and cortisol regulation (Lew et al., 2019). Magnesium-rich foods include leafy greens, nuts, seeds, whole grains, and dark chocolate.
  3. Omega-3 fatty acids: These anti-inflammatory fats have been shown to reduce cortisol levels and improve mood in individuals with stress-related disorders (Madison et al., 2021). Good sources of omega-3s include fatty fish like salmon, sardines, and anchovies, as well as chia seeds, flaxseeds, and walnuts.
  4. B-vitamins: The B-vitamin complex, particularly vitamins B6, B9 (folate), and B12, play a crucial role in neurotransmitter synthesis and stress response (McCabe et al., 2017). Good sources of B-vitamins include leafy greens, legumes, whole grains, and lean proteins.

Incorporating these stress-reducing nutrients into a balanced, Mediterranean-style diet can help support healthy cortisol levels and overall well-being. However, it is important to remember that nutrition is just one piece of the stress management puzzle, and a comprehensive approach that includes lifestyle modifications and stress-reducing practices is often necessary for optimal results.

Herbs and Supplements for Reducing Cortisol

In addition to lifestyle changes and a balanced diet, certain herbs and supplements may help support healthy cortisol levels and reduce stress. However, it is essential to consult with a healthcare professional before starting any new supplement regimen to ensure safety and appropriateness for individual needs (Lin, n.d.).

Adaptogenic Herbs

Adaptogens are a class of herbs that help the body adapt to stress and promote balance. Some adaptogenic herbs, such as ashwagandha, rhodiola rosea, and bacopa monnieri, have been studied for their potential to lower cortisol levels and reduce stress (Anghelescu et al., 2018; Benson et al., 2014; Salve et al., 2019).

Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera)

Ashwagandha, an Ayurvedic herb, has been shown to significantly reduce cortisol levels in stressed individuals. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study found that participants who took 600 mg of ashwagandha root extract daily for 60 days experienced a 30% reduction in cortisol levels compared to the placebo group (Salve et al., 2019). Another study by Gopukumar et al. (2021) found similar results, with participants experiencing significant reductions in cortisol levels and improvements in stress-related symptoms after taking ashwagandha for 8 weeks.

Rhodiola Rosea

Rhodiola rosea, a traditional Chinese medicine herb, has been used to increase stamina, reduce fatigue, and improve mental performance. A review of clinical trials found that rhodiola rosea supplementation can help reduce stress-related symptoms and improve overall well-being (Anghelescu et al., 2018). A study by Edwards et al. (2012) found that participants who took rhodiola rosea extract for 4 weeks experienced significant reductions in cortisol levels and improvements in stress-related symptoms compared to the placebo group.

Bacopa Monnieri

Bacopa monnieri, another Ayurvedic herb, has been studied for its potential to reduce cortisol levels, improve mood, and enhance cognitive function. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial found that participants who took 320 mg of bacopa monnieri extract daily for 12 weeks experienced significant reductions in cortisol levels and improvements in mood and cognitive performance (Benson et al., 2014). Another study by Calabrese et al. (2008) found similar results, with participants experiencing significant improvements in anxiety, depression, and memory after taking bacopa monnieri for 12 weeks.

Other Supplements for Stress Management

In addition to adaptogenic herbs, several other supplements have been studied for their potential to reduce cortisol levels and support stress management. These include:

Omega-3 Fatty Acids

Omega-3 fatty acids, found in fish oil supplements and fatty fish like salmon and sardines, have been shown to help reduce inflammation and lower cortisol levels. A study by Madison et al. (2021) found that omega-3 supplementation led to a significant reduction in cortisol levels and inflammatory markers in stressed individuals. Another study by Oravcova et al. (2022) found that omega-3 supplementation helped reduce oxidative stress and improve cortisol levels in adolescents with depression.

Probiotics and Prebiotics

Probiotics and prebiotics, which support gut health, have also been linked to lower cortisol levels and reduced stress. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study by Lew et al. (2019) found that participants who took a probiotic supplement containing Lactobacillus plantarum P8 for 12 weeks experienced significant reductions in stress and anxiety levels, as well as improvements in memory and cognitive function. Prebiotics, which serve as food for beneficial gut bacteria, have also been shown to reduce cortisol levels and improve emotional well-being (Kiecolt-Glaser et al., 2021).

Phosphatidylserine

Phosphatidylserine is a fatty substance that plays a crucial role in cell signaling and membrane function. It has been shown to reduce cortisol levels and improve stress resilience. A study by Hellhammer et al. (2004) found that participants who took 400 mg of phosphatidylserine daily for 2 weeks experienced significant reductions in cortisol levels and improvements in mood and cognitive performance compared to the placebo group. Another study by Kingsley (2006) found that phosphatidylserine supplementation helped reduce cortisol levels and improve exercise performance in athletes.

L-Theanine

L-theanine is an amino acid found primarily in green tea that has been shown to promote relaxation and reduce stress. A study by Kimura et al. (2007) found that participants who took 200 mg of L-theanine experienced significant reductions in stress-related symptoms and improvements in cognitive performance compared to the placebo group. L-theanine is thought to work by increasing alpha brain wave activity, which is associated with relaxation and mental alertness (Kimura et al., 2007).

While these herbs and supplements show promise in managing stress and reducing cortisol levels, it is crucial to remember that they should be used in conjunction with lifestyle changes and under the guidance of a healthcare professional. Some supplements may interact with medications or have side effects, so it is essential to discuss their use with a qualified practitioner before starting any new regimen.

The Importance of a Comprehensive Approach

Managing stress and maintaining healthy cortisol levels requires a multi-faceted approach that addresses both the physical and psychological aspects of stress. While supplements can be a valuable tool in supporting stress management, they should not be relied upon as a sole solution.

Incorporating lifestyle changes, such as regular exercise, adequate sleep,

Conclusion

In conclusion, managing stress and maintaining healthy cortisol levels is essential for overall health and well-being. Chronic stress and elevated cortisol levels can contribute to a wide range of health problems, including weight gain, cardiovascular disease, digestive issues, and mental health disorders.

To effectively manage stress and reduce cortisol levels, it’s important to adopt a comprehensive approach that includes lifestyle changes, a balanced diet, and potentially incorporating certain herbs and supplements under the guidance of a healthcare professional. Lifestyle changes, such as regular exercise, adequate sleep, and mindfulness practices, can help reduce the body’s stress response and promote relaxation. Engaging in activities that bring joy and fulfilment, such as hobbies, social connections, and time in nature, can also help manage stress and improve overall well-being.

A nutrient-dense diet that emphasises whole, minimally processed foods and limits added sugars, unhealthy fats, and excessive caffeine and alcohol can support the body’s stress response and reduce inflammation. The Mediterranean diet, which is rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and healthy fats, has been associated with lower cortisol levels and improved overall health. Certain herbs and supplements, such as ashwagandha, rhodiola rosea, bacopa monnieri, omega-3 fatty acids, prebiotics, and probiotics, may help support healthy cortisol levels and reduce stress. However, it’s crucial to consult with a healthcare professional before starting any new supplement regimen to ensure safety and appropriateness for individual needs. By taking a proactive approach to stress management and prioritising overall health and well-being, individuals can naturally reduce cortisol levels, improve their quality of life, and reduce the risk of stress-related health problems.

Key Highlights and Actionable Tips

  • Lowering stress through relaxation techniques, exercise, and hobbies can help reduce cortisol levels naturally
  • Eating a balanced diet, avoiding caffeine in the evening, and getting enough sleep can help stabilise cortisol levels
  • Maintaining good relationships, getting a pet, and stopping smoking may also contribute to lower cortisol levels
  • Supplements such as Omega-3 fatty acids and ashwagandha may help reduce cortisol, but consult a doctor before trying them

What lifestyle factors can contribute to high cortisol levels?

Chronic stress, lack of sleep, poor diet, smoking, and certain medications can all contribute to elevated cortisol levels. Engaging in intense exercise, consuming excessive caffeine, and having unhealthy relationships may also lead to higher cortisol production. Making positive lifestyle changes like reducing stress, getting adequate sleep, eating a balanced diet, and quitting smoking can help lower cortisol levels naturally.

How can I tell if my cortisol levels are too high?

Symptoms of high cortisol may include feeling on edge or tense, difficulty concentrating, trouble sleeping, weight gain, and fatigue. However, the only definitive way to determine if your cortisol levels are elevated is through a blood test ordered by your doctor. If you suspect your cortisol levels are too high, speak with a healthcare professional to discuss testing and treatment options.

Are there any natural supplements that can help lower cortisol?

Some studies suggest that supplements like Omega-3 fatty acids and ashwagandha may help reduce cortisol levels. However, more research is needed to fully understand their effects and safety. It’s important to consult with a doctor before trying any new supplements, especially if you have underlying health conditions or take medications, as supplements can interact with them.

What types of exercise are best for lowering cortisol?

Low to moderate-impact exercises may be best for people with high cortisol levels, as intense exercise can actually trigger a temporary increase in cortisol production. The ideal type and amount of exercise can vary depending on individual circumstances, so it’s advisable to ask a doctor for personalised recommendations. In general, aim for around 150-200 minutes of moderate exercise per week for overall health benefits.

Can having a pet really help lower cortisol levels?

Some studies indicate that pet ownership may indeed help lower cortisol levels. One study found that having a dog present significantly buffered children’s rise in perceived stress compared to those who were alone or with a parent. While more research is needed, the companionship and unconditional love provided by pets may help reduce stress and, in turn, lower cortisol production. However, it’s important to carefully consider the responsibilities of pet ownership before getting one.

References

Anghelescu, I. G., Edwards, D., Seifritz, E., & Kasper, S. (2018). Stress management and the role of Rhodiola rosea: A review. International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice, 22(4), 242-252. https://doi.org/10.1080/13651501.2017.1417442

Benson, S., Downey, L. A., Stough, C., Wetherell, M., Zangara, A., & Scholey, A. (2014). An acute, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study of 320 mg and 640 mg doses of Bacopa monnieri (CDRI 08) on multitasking stress reactivity and mood. Phytotherapy Research, 28(4), 551-559. https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.5029

Calabrese, C., Gregory, W. L., Leo, M., Kraemer, D., Bone, K., & Oken, B. (2008). Effects of a standardized Bacopa monnieri extract on cognitive performance, anxiety, and depression in the elderly: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 14(6), 707-713. https://doi.org/10.1089/acm.2008.0018

Edwards, D., Heufelder, A., & Zimmermann, A. (2012). Therapeutic effects and safety of Rhodiola rosea extract WS® 1375 in subjects with life-stress symptoms–results of an open-label study. Phytotherapy Research, 26(8), 1220-1225. https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.3712

Gopukumar, K., Thanawala, S., Somepalli, V., Rao, T. S. S., & Thamatam, V. B. (2021). Efficacy and safety of ashwagandha root extract on cognitive functions in healthy, stressed adults: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2021, 8254344. https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/8254344

Hellhammer, J., Fries, E., Buss, C., Engert, V., Tuch, A., Rutenberg, D., & Hellhammer, D. (2004). Effects of soy lecithin phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylserine complex (PAS) on the endocrine and psychological responses to mental stress. Stress, 7(2), 119-126. https://doi.org/10.1080/10253890410001728379

Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., Fagundes, C. P., Andridge, R., Peng, J., Malarkey, W. B., Habash, D., & Belury, M. A. (2021). Depression, daily stressors and inflammatory responses to high-fat meals: When stress overrides healthier food choices. Molecular Psychiatry, 26(7), 3030-3042. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41380-020-0739-z

Kimura, K., Ozeki, M., Juneja, L. R., & Ohira, H. (2007). L-Theanine reduces psychological and physiological stress responses. Biological Psychology, 74(1), 39-45. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsycho.2006.06.006

Kingsley, M. (2006). Effects of phosphatidylserine supplementation on exercising humans. Sports Medicine, 36(8), 657-669. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200636080-00003

Lew, L. C., Hor, Y. Y., Yusoff, N. A. A., Choi, S. B., Yusoff, M. S. B., Roslan, N. S., Ahmad, A., Mohammad, J. A. M., Abdullah, M. F. I. L., Zakaria, N., Wahid, N., Sun, Z., Kwok, L. Y., Zhang, H., & Liong, M. T. (2019). Probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum P8 alleviated stress and anxiety while enhancing memory and cognition in stressed adults: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Clinical Nutrition, 38(5), 2053-2064. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2018.09.010

Madison, A. A., Belury, M. A., Andridge, R., Shrout, M. R., Renna, M. E., Malarkey, W. B., Emery, C. F., & Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K. (2021). Omega-3 supplementation and stress reactivity of cellular aging biomarkers: An ancillary substudy of a randomized, controlled trial in midlife adults. Molecular Psychiatry, 26(7), 3034-3042. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41380-021-01077-2

McCabe, D., Lisy, K., Lockwood, C., & Colbeck, M. (2017). The impact of essential fatty acid, B vitamins, vitamin C, magnesium and zinc supplementation on stress levels in women: A systematic review. JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports, 15(2), 402-453. https://doi.org/10.11124/JBISRIR-2016-002965

Oravcova, H., Mlynarova, E., Hegedusova, A., Hegedus, O., & Gancarcikova, S. (2022). Stress hormones cortisol and aldosterone and selected markers of oxidative stress in response to long-term supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids in adolescent children with depression. Antioxidants, 11(8), 1546. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11081546

Pascoe, M. C., Thompson, D. R., Jenkins, Z. M., & Ski, C. F. (2017). Mindfulness mediates the physiological markers of stress: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 95, 156-178. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2017.08.004

Salve, J., Pate, S., Debnath, K., & Langade, D. (2019). Adaptogenic and anxiolytic effects of ashwagandha root extract in healthy adults: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical study. Cureus, 11(12), e6466. https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.6466



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